Spotting fluid (Weighted) Supplier and Manufacturer

SPOTTING FLUID (WEIGHTED)

description


SPOTTING FLUID Weighted stuck pipe additive is a liquid one drum product for preparing weighted oil base spotting fluids. It contains gellants, emulsifiers, wetting agents and filtercake cracking materials. Spotting Fluide-Weighted spotting fluid can be mixed in diesel oil or mineral oil. Fresh water, seawater or brine may be used for the water portion of the spot. Spotting Fluid-W product dehydrates and cracks filtercakes allowing the spotting fluid to penetrate between the drillstring and the formation, wetting and lubricating the drillstring, reducing the force required to free stuck pipe. Spotting Fluid-W spots are easily and quickly mixed requiring no special rig or mixing equipment. 

APPLICATIONS

SPOTTING FLUID-W stuck pipe additive has application in all wells requiring a weighted soak solution to free differentially stuck pipe. Spotting Fluid-W spotting fluids can be prepared from either diesel oil or mineral oil using any makeup water. Densities of Spotting Fluid-W spots range from 8 ‐ 18 lb/gal (0.96 ‐ 2.16 sg). Success in freeing differentially stuck pipe is greatest when the soaking solution is spotted in the minimum amount of time afer becoming stuck. A soak solution that can be quickly mixed and spotted will often free the drillstring before fishing operations are required. Spotting Fluid-W stuck pipe additive, being a single‐package liquid blend, allows for ease of mixing and quick preparation. Spotting Fluid-W spotting fluid gives excellent oil wetting characteristics and is formulated to ensure rapid penetration through the filtercae to the formation. The quantity of the Spotting Fluid-W spotting fluid (50 ‐ 200 barrels [8 ‐ 32 m³]) should be placed in the annulus around the suspected stuck pipe area and one or two barrels of fresh spotting fluid should be umped every hour. Spotting Fluid-W spotting fluid is designed to withstand contamination by water‐base mud and remain effective. .

CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTY

Physical State : The Material shall be a homogeneous free flowing liquid at 24 ± 2 °C, Dark brown, oily liquid free from visible impurities. 

Specific Gravity                  :~0.90 (S.G).
pH (1% Solution)                 :6.5 ‐ 7.5.
Flash Point                        :100°F (38°C) (PMCC).

Lubricity Coefficient of Treated Bentonite Suspension :
Prepare Bentonite Suspension using VISION approved Bentonite and hydrate for 72 hours at 90 ± 2°C. Adjust its Apparent Viscosity to 10 cP Add 1% (w/v) Spotting Fluid Sample, and stir in Hamilton Beach Mixer, for 15 minutes, at high speed. Measure the Lubricity Coefficient.
Lubricity Coefficient of the treated bentonite suspension shall not be more than 0.25.

Reduction in Interfacial Tension :
(i)    Determine Interfacial Tension (dyne / cm ) of HSD and Water at room temperature.
Record the Interfacial Tension of the untreated HSD-Water system.

(ii)    Now separately add 2.5%    (w/v) Spotting Fluid to HSD and mix well. Determine Interfacial Tension of HSD (containing Spotting Fluid) and Water again.
Interfacial Tension of the treated HSD Water system shall not be more than 50% of the value obtained for untreated system 3(i).
Stability Tests :

(a) Thermal Stability Test :

(i) Prepare a Spotting Fluid slug adding 78 ml Spotting Fluid Sample to 510 ml HSD and stirring with Hamilton Beach Mixer for 10 minutes at high speed. To this add 110ml of Distilled Water followed by 15 g Lime powder slowly, while stirring for 1 hour after addition is complete (stirring should be interrupted after every 20 minutes and stirrer should be allowed to cool for 10 minutes . This process should be repeated three times. Load with Barytes to Specific Gravity 1.90 - 1.92.


(ii) Again stir with Hamilton Beach Mixer for 1 hourin the manner described above. Determine Apparent Viscosity ( cP), Plastic Viscosity ( cP), Yield Point (lbs/100 sq. ft ), Gel0 ( lbs/100 sq. (t) and Gel10 (lbs/100 sq. ft ) of the Suspension at 49 ± 3°C (in accordance with recommen-dations of API -13 Sub - Committee ).
Record Apparent Viscosity, Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, Gel 0and Gel 10of the base mud.
(iii)    Hot roll one portion of the above Suspension at 100°C for 4 hours. Cool and again determine Apparent Viscosity (cP), Plastic Viscosity (    cP), Yield Point ( lbs/100 sq. ft ), Gel0 (lbs/100 sq. ft ) and Gel10 (lbs/100 sq. ft ) at 49 ± 3°C (in accordance with recommendations of API -13 .
Variation in Apparent Viscosity, Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, Gel0 and Gel10 values of the hot rolled base mud as compared to the corresponding values of the base mud 4 (a) (ii) shall not be more than ± 20%.

(b) Weight Stability Test :

Place 500 ml of the Weighted Spotting Fluid Slug prepared above (before hot rolling) in a cylinder having two drain valves, one near the top and the other near the bottom. Keep the cylinder undisturbed for 2 hours. Draw Samples from top and bottom and determine their respective Specific Gravity.
Difference in the two specific gravities should not be more than 0.02.


Filter Cake Cracking Test :
Prepare pre-hydrated Bentonite Suspension (using VISION approved Bentonite) for 72 hours at 90 ± 2    °C and dilute with Distilled Water to obtain suspension of 15cP Apparent Viscosity. Obtain a Filter Cake of this Mud in the API ffiter press by carrying out ffitration for 30 minutes at 100    psi pressure using Whatman No. 1 filter paper. Throw the Mud away, wash the Mud Cake with slow stream of water (without removing the Mud Cake from the Cell) and fin the Cell with 100 m/HSD oil containing 2.5% (w/v) Spotting Fluid. Close the Cell and apply 100 psipressure for 2 hours. Release pressure, throw out the HSD solution and observe cracking pattern on the Mud Cake. 
Filter cake should develop extensive cracks.

Sticking Test :
Prepare 15cP Bentonite Suspension, as in the case of Filter Cake Cracking Test. Load it with Barytes to Specific Gravity 1.20. Form a Filter Cake by applying 500psi pressure for 30 minutes in a Sticking Tester. Stick the plate by pressing it on the cake for 5 minutes and leave for 1    hour under 500 psipressure. Then release the pressure, open bottom and top stoppers, and with the help of running water, wash off the Mud from the cell. Replace the bottom stopper and fin the Cell with 100 ml of HSD Oil containing 2.5% (w/v) of the Sample of Spotting fluid. Close the top stopper and again apply 500 psi pressure. Note the Time for release of stuck plate and if not released in 20 Minutes, apply torque with a Torque Wrench.
Torque required for release of the stuck plate should not be more than 75 inch- pounds.

ADVANTAGES

Simple, single‐drum product does not require other additives
May be used in diesel oil, crude oil or low toxicity oil
Does not require high shear or long mixing time, allowing quick and effectiapplication
Can be weighted to any desired density

LIMITATIONS

The chart below lists the required quantities for formulating one final barrel of Spotting Fluid-W solution in diesel oil with Barite weighting material. This formulation is designed to produce the minimum viscosity required to support weight material. Should higher viscosities be required or if mineral oil is being used, it is suggested that the concentration of Spotting Fluid-W stuck‐pipe additive be increased from 3.5 gal/bbl (83.3 L/m³) to 4.0 – 4.5 gal/bbl (95 ‐ 107 L/m³). If it is necessary to reduce the viscosity of a Spotting Fluid-W

solution, dilution with oil or the addition of 0.25 ‐ 0.5 lb/bbl (0.71 ‐ 1.43 kg/m³) surfactant is recommended. 
Example: To mix 120 bbl, 12- lb/gal Spotting Fluid-W spot using diesel oil and Barite weight material :

From the chart calculate: 

Diesel Oil: 0.527 x 120 = 63.2 or 63 bbl
Water: 0.226 x 120 = 27.1 or 27 bbl
Spotting Fluid-W 3.5 x 120 = 420 gal or 7.6 drum
Chart for One Barrel of Spotting Fluid
Mud Weight      Diesel Oil    Spotting Fluid      Fresh Water      Barite  
(lb/gal)                 (bbl)            (W)                          (bbl)                  (lb)  

8.0                           0.542               3.5                    0.361                20.4 
9.0                           0.520               3.5                    0.347                74.1 
10.0                          0.498               3.5                    0.332                127.7 
11.0                          0.553               3.5                    0.237                186.6 
12.0                          0.527               3.5                    0.226                240.0 
13.0                          0.502               3.5                    0.215                293.3 
14.0                          0.477               3.5                    0.204                346.7 
15.0                          0.513               3.5                    0.128                404.4 
16.0                          0.484               3.5                    0.121                457.5 
18.0                          0.478               3.5                    0.053                567.3 
19.0                          0.445               3.5                    0.049                620.2


REMARKS: The effectiveness of 3.5 gal Spotting Fluid-W per barrel of spotting fluid is adequate for all types of base oils. However, when preparing spotting fluid in low‐toxicity mineral oils, slightly more Spotting POTTING FLUID-W additive may be required to obtain desired rheological properties and gel strengths.

TOXICITY AND HANDLING

Bioassay information is available upon request. Handle as an industrial chemical, wearing protective equipment and observing the precautions as described in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).

PACKAGING AND STORAGE

Spotting fluid-W is packaged in 55‐gal (208‐L) drums. Store in dry, well‐ventilated area. Keep container closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flames. Store away from incompatibles. Follow safe warehousing practices regarding palletizing, banding, shrink‐wrapping and/or stacking.

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